Abdomen - The part of the body that includes the stomach, intestine, liver, bladder and kidneys. The abdomen is located between the ribs and hips.
Advanced prostate cancer - Prostate cancer that has spread to surrounding tissue or has spread to other parts of the body.
Anaesthetic - A drug that stops a person feeling pain during a medical procedure. A local anaesthetic numbs only a part of the body; a general anaesthetic puts a person to sleep for a period of time.
Analgesics - Medications that are used to relieve pain.
Cancer - A term for diseases in which abnormal cells divide without control.
Catheter - A hollow, flexible tube through which fluids can be passed into the body or drained from it.
Cells - The building blocks of the body. A human is made of millions of cells, which are adapted for different functions. Cells can reproduce themselves exactly, unless they are abnormal or damaged, as are cancer cells.
Clear Margin - When a malignant tumour is surgically removed some surrounding tissue will be removed with it. If this surrounding tissue does not contain any cancer cells it is said to be a clear margin.
Cultural engagement - Actively involve people with respect to their cultural needs.
Diagnosis - The identification and naming of a person’s disease.
Dietitian - A health professional who specialises in human nutrition.
Erectile dysfunction - Inability to achieve or maintain an erection firm enough for penetration.
Erection - When the penis becomes enlarged and rigid.
Fertility - Ability to have children.
General Practitioner (GP) - General practitioners diagnose, refer and treat the health problems of individuals and families in the community. Also commonly referred to as family doctors.
Grade - A score that describes how quickly the tumour is likely to grow.
Hormone - A substance that affects how your body works. Some hormones control growth, others control reproduction. They are distributed around the body through the bloodstream
Incision - A cut into a body tissue or organ.
Incontinence - Inability to hold or control the loss of urine or faeces.
Intravenous - Into a vein. An intravenous drip gives drugs directly into a vein.
Localised prostate cancer - Prostate cancer that is at an early stage and is still contained within the prostate gland.
Locally advanced prostate cancer - Cancer which has spread beyond the prostate capsule and may include the seminal vesicles but still confined to the prostate region.
Lymph nodes - Also called lymph glands. Small, bean-shaped collections of lymph cells scattered across the lymphatic system. They get rid of bacteria and other harmful things. There are lymph nodes in the neck, armpit, groin and abdomen.
Malignant - Cancerous. Malignant cells can spread and can eventually cause death if they cannot be treated.
Metastatic prostate cancer - Small groups of cells have spread from the primary tumour site and started to grow in other parts of the body – such as bones.
Multidisciplinary care - A team approach to cancer treatment and planning.
Non-nerve- sparing radical prostatectomy - Nerve bundles on both sides of the prostate are removed during surgery to remove the prostate.
Pathologist - A person who studies diseases to understand their nature and cause. Pathologists examine biopsies under a microscope to diagnose cancer and other diseases.
Pelvic floor muscles - The floor of the pelvis is made up of muscle layers and tissues. The layers stretch like a hammock from the tailbone at the back to the pubic bone in front. The pelvic floor muscles support the bladder and bowel. The urethra (urine tube) and rectum (back passage) pass through the pelvic floor muscles.
Perineal (Perineum) - The area between the anus and the scrotum.
Prostate cancer - Cancer of the prostate, the male organ that sits next to the urinary bladder and contributes to semen (sperm fluid) production.
Prostate gland - The prostate gland is normally the size of a walnut. It is located between the bladder and the penis and sits in front of the rectum. It produces fluid that forms part of semen.
Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) - A protein produced by cells in the prostate gland, which is usually found in the blood in larger than normal amounts when prostate cancer is present.
Quality of life - An individual’s overall appraisal of their situation and wellbeing. Quality of life encompasses symptoms of disease and side effects of treatment, functional capacity, social interactions and relationships, and occupational functioning.
Radical prostatectomy - A surgical operation that removes the prostate.
Radiotherapy or radiation oncology - The use of radiation, usually x-rays or gamma rays, to kill tumour cells or injure them so they cannot grow or multiply.
Self-management - An awareness and active participation by people with cancer in their recovery, recuperation, and rehabilitation, to minimise the consequences of treatment, promote survival, health and wellbeing.
Shared decision making - Integration of a patient’s values, goals and concerns with the best available evidence about benefits, risks and uncertainties of treatment, in order to achieve appropriate health care decisions. It involves clinicians and patients making decisions about the patient’s management together.
Side effect - Unintended effects of a drug or treatment.
Stage - The extent of a cancer and whether the disease has spread from an original site to other parts of the body.
Support group - People on whom an individual can rely for the provision of emotional caring and concern, and reinforcement of a sense of personal worth and value. Other components of support may include provision of practical or material aid, information, guidance, feedback and validation of the individual’s stressful experiences and coping choices.
Supportive care - Improving quality of life for people with cancer from different perspectives, including physical, social, emotional, financial and spiritual.
Surgeon - A doctor who performs surgery to remove cancerous tissue.
Survivorship - In cancer, survivorship focuses on the health and life of a person with cancer beyond the diagnosis and treatment phases. Survivorship includes issues related to follow-up care, late effects of treatment, second cancers, and quality of life.
Testosterone - The major male hormone which is produced by the testicles.
Unilateral nerve- sparing radical prostatectomy - Nerve bundles on one side of the prostate are left intact during surgery to remove the prostate.
Urethra - The tube that carries urine from the bladder, and semen, out through the penis and to the outside of the body.
Urologist - Urologists are surgeons who treat men, women and children with problems involving the kidney, bladder, prostate and male reproductive organs. These conditions include cancer, stones, infection, incontinence, sexual dysfunction and pelvic floor problems.
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